Come, ye thankful people, come,
Raise the song of Harvest-home;
All is safely gathered in,
Ere the winter storms begin.
Henry Alfred 1810-187
The First Thanksgiving
What is now called the First Thanksgiving was actually a Harvest Festival, popular in England, and, indeed, all over the world, including the New World. The Pilgrims and the Wampanoag Indians gathered at Plymouth in Nov. 1621 for an autumn harvest celebration, which took place over 3 days, an event regarded as America’s “First Thanksgiving.” (History.com)
But there would not have been a harvest or a Harvest Festival without the guidance and teaching of the Indians.
The seeds that the Pilgrims brought over from Europe–peas, barley, and wheat– did not grow well in this climate and soil.
The Indians taught them how to grow the Three Sisters– beans, corn, and squash. Beans and corn were made into succotash; corn was also ground into flour.
They also taught them to catch fish, lobsters, and eels; to harvest clams, and oysters; and to trap and hunt game.
Wild Turkey photograph by Jack Shouba
There was wild turkey on the menu to be sure, but it didn’t bear much resemblance to the turkeys that are bred for Thanksgiving nowadays.
There would have been other fowl, as well:duck, geese, probably passenger pigeon.
There was a myriad of seafood:fish–cod and bass–and shellfish–mussels, clams, and oysters.
The 90 Indians who were invited supplied five deer–venison was very popular.
Pumpkin and squash were abundant, but no pumpkin pie–there was no wheat flour for the crust, no sugar or spice for the filling, and no whipped cream.
Cranberries were abundant as were other berries:blueberries, blackberries, and elderberries that would have been dried. There was no cranberry sauce–there was no sugar with which to make it.
Various nuts were available:acorns, chestnuts, black walnuts, hickory nuts. Acorns were ground into flour.
And how did we pay back the Indians for their gracious hospitality?
Well, you know the rest of the story.
Here are some stats:
Canada has over 600 recognized 1st Nation governments or bands with distinctive aboriginal cultures, language, art, and music.
Indian Population 851,560 2011
They have a National Aboriginal Day on June 21 every year.
United States, in May 2013, had 566 Native American tribes recognized by the BIA (Bureau of Indian Affairs).
United States 2010 census 2.9 million 100% Native American
2.3 million part Native American
About 22% live on tribal lands (2010 U.S. Census). There are 310 Indian Reservations.
How many in Illinois? 0
How many in Wisconsin? 6
How many in Michigan? 8
How many in Minnesota? 11
Indiana? 0 Ironic, isn’t it? The Pokagon Band of Potawatomi Indians were the only Indians left in the state after the end of the removals–their headquarters are in adjacent lands in Michigan.
The settlers and the U.S. Army pushed the Indians further north and west until there was no more place to go.
During the War of 1812, the British proposed that Wisconsin and Michigan remain Indian Territory as a buffer between the English territory of Canada and the territory of the United States. It was, of course, rejected. Removal of the Great Lakes Indians was instigated, but the tribes of Wisconsin either refused to leave or, if they did, they came back.
More on Great Lakes Indians: http://www.mpm.edu/wirp/ICW-21.html
Wait a minute–isn’t this supposed to be a blog about native plants? Why are we talking about Indians?
Because I think Indian reservations are the best places to restore native plants and eco-systems.
Native Americans have always been in touch with the Earth and its dynamics. Hunting and gathering are not simply activities done in order to make a living, they are a religion and a way of life. It is important to respect Native American beliefs within their cultural context.
“Over the last 500 years Indian cultures have experienced massive destruction, but the tide is changing,” said the Keepers of the Treasures report, which led to the establishment of the National Park Service Tribal Preservation Program to preserve not only their structures and their land, but their culture– their ceremonies, their skills, their music, their stories, their practices, their history. The program’s 2014 grant awards celebrate the work of the Keepers—native stewards “who hold not only the keys to the tribal past, but the keys to the tribal future,” in the words of the report, as it marks its 25th anniversary.
Happy Harvest and Happy Thanksgiving to all!